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(2001). Economic analysis of non-compulsory approaches to environmental protection. Journal of Economic Surveys, 15 (3), 291-324. Glachant, M. (2007). Non-binding voluntary agreements. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 54 (1), 32-48. Voluntary environmental agreements attempt to address market failures in a different way than traditional regulatory and economic instruments. They are based on exchanges between the P.A. and companies and on the development of a framework of incentives for the parties in the context of negotiation and cooperation. The efficiency and effectiveness of AVs depend on specific characteristics that can only be assessed by a case analysis.
VAs may effectively be included in the environmental politician`s toolkit if certain conditions relating to their design and implementation are met, in order to limit the risk of arrest and freedom of conduct by regulators. Blackman, A., Lyon, T., Sisto, N. (2006a). voluntary environmental agreements when regulatory capacity is weak. Comparative Economic Studies, 48 (4), 682-702. Voluntary approaches to the environment: effectiveness, efficiency and use in policy dosages provide an in-depth assessment of the use of voluntary approaches, based on a series of new case studies and in-depth research of available literature. The analysis focuses on both voluntary approaches, which are isolated and used in policy dosages. Dvorék, A., Lisa, A., Sauer, P. (2002). Voluntary environmental agreements negotiated: case in the Czech Republic.
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DoE/EIA-0598 report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy. This document contains taxonomy and models to help integrate the cost-effectiveness of voluntary environmental agreements (AVs) into the typical framework of environmental economics.